The Ottoman Era & The British Mandate


The battle of Marj Dabeq in 1516 opened the path for the Ottomans to control the greater Syria, and Egypt after defeating the Mamluks.

In January 1516 the Ottoman Sultan Salem the First got to the walls of Jerusalem, without any resistance. The City Scientists came out to meet him and give him the city keys, Sultan Salem prayed in front of the city walls, and the city stayed without any fights.

That was the beginning of the Ottoman era that remained for 4 centuries, in this period The Ottoman nation was ranging between strength and weakness. The Ottoman era also witnessed the increase of the European influence in the Arabian land.

The Ottoman Sultan Sleman Al-Qanoni built the walls of Jerusalem, which took 5 years to complete, renovated the city’s doors, founded mosques, fountains, and renewed the Dome Of the Rock.

Generally, Jerusalem had a lot of attention, whether from building and renovating the city, or founding schools that were about 99 schools during the Ottoman period. Nevertheless, Al-Aqsa mosque remained serving as a educational foundation.

However, the degradation in the Ottoman nation beginning in the eighteenth century had an effect on Jerusalem, and it effected in particularly the educational institutions. But that period also witnessed the grow of Jerusalem, its extension outside its walls, and a railroad between Jerusalem and  Yafa was established.

Historians agree that the Ottoman era that started strong was a victim of disorder, which was mostly in Palestine. After the first period of the Ottoman era, which witnessed a great interest in Jerusalem, the Ottoman nation had to resist the uprisings in Palestine against the Ottomans especially with the European intervention in Palestine and Ottoman lands.

Also, Palestine witnessed a French attack with the lead of Napoleon Bonaparte, and a campaign sent by Ibrahim Basha the son of Mohammad Ali basha. Jerusalem was under the Egyptian influence between 1831 and 1840.

Jerusalem was a center of a lot of European movements, that started since the 18th century. Those interventions were planning to divide the Ottoman nation, and with the weakness of the Ottomans Zionists began sneaking into Palestine and Jerusalem.

Many historians admit with admire the attitude of the Sultan Abd Al-Hamid that refused the Zionist interests to give up Palestine, and Jerusalem particularly.

In the period of the Unionists the Zionist penetrate to Palestine was big especially after the Ottoman sultan declared his agree to found a neighborhood for Jews in Jerusalem.

In 1917 the Ottoman Governance in Palestine ended, and the Britains invaded Jerusalem.


The British Mandate on Palestine:

 The British Mandate On Palestine is a power that ruled Palestine for 28 years between July 1920 and May 1948, with the borders that Britain and France declared after dividing the Ottoman empire, and as a result of the Sayfer agreement in 11 September 1922 the United nations declared the British mandate on Palestine official.

The mandate area covered the area what is known today as historical Palestine (That is the area that includes all the Palestinian lands, in addition to eastern Jordan. Jerusalem was the capital of the mandate, where the British Governor lived.

At the debut of the mandate Britain declared that its goal is to accomplish what the Balfour declaration promised the Jews, which is opening the door for Jews, who desire to immigrate to Palestine, and establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine.

However, in the mid thirties of the 20th century Britain changed its policy, and tried to stop the Jewish immigration to Palestine.

Britain and France had already agreed on dividing the greater Syria between them in a secret agreement in 16 May 1916. In April 1920 The countries of agreement that won in world war 1 met in the Italian city San Remo to decide how to divide the land from the Ottoman empire. In this conference all sides agreed to give Palestine to Britain.