Palestine in the Islamic history
Since the second Abbasid age that began after the middle of the third Higri century, the Islamic nation was in constant weakness, until the Islamic nation divided to 3 nations the Abassi nation in the east, the Fatimid nation in Egypt and parts of morocco and Al Sham, and the Omayyad nation in Andalusia.
Before the crusades war in about 40 years the Seljuk Turks ruled Bagdad under the Abassi rule that didn’t have any influence on the Seljuks.
In 1071 the Seljuk ruled most of Palestine, and kicked the Fatimid rule out of the land. In the year 1092 (491 hijri) the Seljuk sultan (Malek Shah) died, as a result of his death the Seljuk power divided, and the Seljuks entered in a lot of wars and conflicts between them to gain power. In 1096 the seljuks power was made of five kingdoms.
The crusaders began their attack in 1098 (491 higri) when a lot of Islamic lands in Iraq, Al Sham were ripped by conflicts.
The first crusade attack: in that time Europe began considering the holy land after the pope Orban the second called to take back the holy lands from the Muslims, then a lot of conferences took place to call to a crusade war against the Muslims.
The pope decided that the sins of anyone who participates in the crusades war will be forgave.
European knights and princes participated in the first crusade attack, the crusades began to rule Islamic lands since the summer of 1097, and the crusaders founded the emirate of Rahaa.
When the Seljoks were facing the crusade attack the Fatimids invaded the city of Tyre in 1097 and ruled Jerusalem in Feb 1098 while the crusaders were surrounding Antakya, the fatimids sent an embassy to the crusaders to ally with them against the Seljuks so that the north part of Syria becomes under the crusaders power, and Palestine under the Fatimid power, that way while the Seljukes were busy fighting the crusaders the Fatimids were busy expanding their lands in Palestine.
Raymond De Toloz (The prince of Toloz and Provance in France) continued to lead the crusaders to Jerusalem and they were 1000 knight and 5000 soldiers only. In the spring of 1099 they entered Palestine and passed by Aaka then Keysara, and Al Ramla, Al-Lled, and beit Lahem. In 7 july 1099 the seige of Jerusalem began and it was invaded in 15 july 1099. The crusaders fought the Muslims for a week, and they killed in the dome of the rock more than 70,000 Muslims.
It is said that there were only the crusaders had only 300 knights and 2000 soldiers left, and they couldn’t expand their power, so they left the land and therefore the crusaders lands were defenseless but because the conflicts between the Muslims and their weakness, and the crusaders control on huge lands the Muslims didn’t take the chance to retrieve the holy land, and the crusaders became more powerful and harder to defeat.
Other Palestinian cities fell into the hands of the crusaders like Yafa and the land east of Tabariah Lake.
The conflict between Muslims continued, and some of them asked for help from the crusaders, which made the Islamic role in the area weak, and made the crusaders stronger.
But even so the Muslims continued their jihad against the crusaders without stopping, even if their jihad missed any kind of organization and management because of the multitude of Arab leaders. There were many battles between the crusaders and the Muslims in Al-Sham, but the Muslims were missing a strong militarily base to rely on as a primary base, The battles were often between an Arab city or castle and the crusaders.
The Muslims and crusaders exchanged victory in these battles, each year there were wars, and each year they exchanged invading cities and fortresses. It wasn’t hard for the Muslim forces to enter Palestine and battle the crusaders in Yafa or Al Ramlah. However, the crusaders remained the real rulers of the land.
Many Arab fighters like (Maeen Al-Dawleh Saqman & Shams Al-Dawleh Gakarmash Harb) with limited tried to unite the Arab forces to fight the crusaders, but without success. However, they remained fighting, cost the crusaders great loses, and took the life of many of their leaders which made the crusaders lose peace and stability.
In the year 507 Hijri the Muslims assembled in Al Mousel, Senjar, and Damascus. They fought the crusaders at Lake Tabariah, captured their king, and killed a lot of crusaders in addition to capturing a lot of hostages.
Nevertheless, The native Palestine Muslim residents kept living in the land that the crusaders invaded, but a small part immigrated to the east of Jordan, and Damascus. That’s why agriculture decreased in the coastal Palestinian cities. Those Palestinians worked on fighting the crusaders, and offered services to the Arab forces.